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Science, branches of science, mechanics, electromagnetism, electricity, solid state Physics, Atomic Physics,plasma physics, bio physics, astro physics, electronics, Nuclear physics,  geo physics, condense matter physics, history of physics, importance of  physics, contributions of ibn-ul-haitham, Al-Beruni, yaqoob kundi, Muhammad Bin Moosa Al-Khurazmi, Nasi ud din Bin Hassan
Tusi, Abdus Salam,  

Q1.       What is Science?  How many branches of Science are?

Ans.     SCIENCE:

The world Science means to know. In other words, to consider, to observe, to calculate the result and to done experiment on any substance in the universe is called science.

OR

The observation, identification, description, experiment, investigation and theoretical explanation of phenomena are called science. In short knowledge gained through experience is called science.

The following natural phenomena’s give us the knowledge of science.

i.          Colour in rainbow

ii.          Dropping of an apple from tree

iii.         Rusting of an iron

iv.         Growing of plants

v.         Motion of bodies

vi.         Formation of the solar system

BRANCHES OF SCIENCE:

Basically, Science consists of two main branches.

i.          Biological Science

ii.          Physical Science

Q2.       Define Physics. Write down the name of its branches.

Ans.     PHYSICS:

The branch of Physical science in which we discuss interaction between Matter and Energy is call PHYSICS.  It is an experimental science, which mostly depends upon “Experimental observation” as well as quantitative measurement.

BRANCHES OF PHYSICS:

i.          MECHANICS:

In this branch, we study about the forces which are acting on matter as well as the motion & rest of bodies.

ii.         ELECTRICITY:

In this branch, we study about the motion & rest of electric charge.

iii. ELECTROMAGNETISM:

We study and observe the laws of electrostatic and magnetism,  in Electromagnetism.

iv.        SOLID STATE PHYSICS:

Study about crystalline solid in which atoms are arranged in three dimensions is called solid State Physics.

v.         ATOMIC PHYSICS:

Atomic Physics refers to study about structure, properties and behaviour of electron.

vi.        NUCLEAR PHYSICS:

In this branch we study about structure and properties of Nucleus as well as the

reaction between the Nuclei of atoms.

vii.       PLASMA PHYSICS:

The branch, which belongs to highly, ionized atoms. When all electron escape from an atom then it becomes highly ionized, the mixture of highly ionized atom and electron is called plasma.

viii.      BIO-PHYSICS:

The study of bio-system of its structure according to physics method is known as

Bio-Physics.

ix.        ASTRO-PHYSICS:

Study of Astronomical bodies and astronomical system is known as Astro-

Physics.

Q3.       Write name of Modern branches of physics.

Ans. The modern branches of Physics are as follows:

i.          Electronics

ii.          Solid State Physics

iii.         Bio-Physics

iv.         Geo-Physics

v.         Astro Physics

vi.         Condense Matter Physics.

Q4.       Write a note about the history of Physics?

Ans.     HISTORY OF PHYSICS:

The history of Physics is as old as history of man Even the cave man was aware of the production of fire by rubbing two stone together. The Chinese for the time manufacture paper. Egyptian used to measure the flood level in the river Nile. The people of Indus Valley were the pioneers of decimal system. The history of physics about 5000 yrs old. History of Physics consists on three periods.

1          INITIAL PERIOD:

This period is called Greek Period which remained 9th century, the Greek are accepted as pioneers in the development of physics as a systematic knowledge.

The names of famous scientists of this period are:

i.          Pythagoras

ii.          Archimedese

iii.         Euclid

iv.         Ptolomy

2          GOLDEN PERIOD:

This period from 9th century to 13th century. This period is called Muslim period

in which they rule as a scientist in whole world. Famous scientist’s were:

i.          Jaber-Bin Hayyan

ii.          Muhammad Bin Moosa Khawarzmi

iii.         Al-Razi

iv.         Yaqoob Al-Kundi

v.         Al-Beruni

vi.         Umer Khayyam

vii.        Ibn-Al-Haitham

3          MODERN PERIOD:

This period is started from 13th century and still continued. This period was

initiated after the declination of Muslims. The other name of this era is

“European Period”. The famous scientists were:

i.          Albert Einstein

ii.          Michael Faraday

iii.         Graham Bell

iv.         Madam Marie Quire

v.         Dr. Abdul Salaam

vi.         Rutherford vii. Moseley

Q.5       Write a note on the importance of Physics.

Ans.     IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICS:

i.          Physics is the essential of daily life and technology as: Radio, Radar, artificial

satellite, Hydrostatic power station, Nuclear reactor, Diesel engine, firm reactor

and Computer etc.  They belong to daily life as well technology. The electric

power used for domestic purposes is only due to change of magnetic flux.

ii.          Laser used for treatment in medical field and Defence.

iii.         Electroplating, Astronomy and Defence are working only due to Physics.

iv.         Nuclear Physics is used to produce electric power on a large scale.

v.         Automobile technology works on the base of thermodynamic Physics.

vi.         Radar technology works on the principle of reflection and propagation.

In short, this period is totally at rest without Physics.

Q6.       Write the contributions of Ibn-ul-Haitham?

Ans. i.          He wrote the book named “Kitab-ul-Manazir”, about the branch of Physics

called Opticalism.

ii.          He gave the laws of relfection and refraction.

iii.         He explained the luminous, non-luminous transparent and transparent

objectives.

iv.         He described the different parts of eye.

v.         According to Ibn-ul-Haitham, when light passes through a medium then it

takes minimum time to take its path. This is known as Fermate Principle.

vi.         The nature of light is the form of energy according to him.

vii.        He explained the refraction of light.

viii.       He explained the image formed by concave mirror.

Q7.       Write the contribution of Al-Beruni? Or In what way Al-Beruni was a versatile

Scientist.

Ans. i.          He was the famous scientist of Golden age.

ii.          He was a scholar, astronomer, physician, and mathematician.

iii.         He wrote more than one hundred and fifty books on physics Mathematics,

Geography, etc.

iv.         His famous book “Kitab-ul-Qanoon-ul-Masoodi” is considered as an

encyclopedia of Astronomy.

v.         He discussed the measurement of earth, the shape of the earth, the movement

of sun and moon, the phases of the moon and the movement of then known

planets in his famous book Qanoon Al Masoodi.

vi.         He gave the method of determining the longitude and altitude of place.

vii.        He also determined the densities of the metals.

In the fight of above contribution, Al-Beruni is called Versatile Scientist.

Q8.       What are the contributions of Yaqoob Kundi.

Ans. i.          He was a famous Arab philosopher.

ii.          He has 244 books at his credit.

iii.         He gave the idea about specific gravity and Waves.

iv.         He worked in the field of optics and explained the appearance of blue colour in

the sky.

v.         He explained the idea that gold cannot be made from other metals.

vi.         He also explained music from scientific point of view by expressing the different

notes of music in terms of frequencies.

Q9.       Write the part of Muhammad-Bin-Moosa Al-Khurazmi in Science.

Ans. i.          He was one of greatest scientists of his time.

ii.          He was an important member of the great institution of hearing the Bait-ul-

Hikmat established by the great Abbasied Caliph Mamun-ur-Rasheed.

iii.         He was the founder of Algebra.

iv.         He wrote first book in the world on subject of Algebra name “Al-jab-al-

Muqabla”.

v.         He also gave analytical solutions of linear and quadratic equations.

vi.         He introduced the method of counting based on numerals and decimal system

which is used all over the world until now.

vii.        He was also involved in the measurement of angles.

viii.       He simplified the method of addition, subtraction, multiplications and divisions.

Q10.     Write the contribution of Nasi-ud-din Bin Hassan Tusi.

Ans. i.          A great mathematician, astronomer, geographer and astrologer of his time.

ii.          His chief contribution was his success in persuading Halaku Khan to issue

necessary instructions for the creation of grand observatory and a library.

iii.         He prepared very precise and accurate tables about the planetary motion.

Q11.     Write the contributon of Abdus-Salaam.

Ans. i.          A famous Pakistani scientist passed every examination with flying colours.

ii.          He got higher education from UK.

iii.         He was awarded Noble prize in Physics for his work on Grand Unification theory

(GUT).

iv.         He established International centre for theoretical Physics at Treiste in Italy.

Q12.     What branch of Physics do we mean by Electronics?

Ans. Electronics is the branch of Solid State Physics.

Q13.     In what areas Laser is used?

Ans. i.          It is used in Medicine, like surgery of eye.

ii.          It is used in the accurate cutting of metals.

iii.         It is used in communication like space communication.

iv.         It is used in scientific research.

v.         It is used as a detector of certain type of air pollution.

IInd Chapter X Physics

Q1.       What is meant by Measurement?

Ans.     MEASUREMENT

The following information about a body or an event is called measurement.

i.          Size and nature of a body is described with a scale.

ii.          A clock describes an event.

iii.         Hence the reading will give the scale or clock about a body or an event is known

as measurement.

Q2.       Define the term UNIT?

Ans.     UNIT:

Such quantities that are used to express physical quantities are called UNIT.

Examples:

Unit of mass is known is Kilogram.

Unit of weight is Newton.

Unit of distance is Meter.

In short, without mentioning unit we cannot described any physical quantity.

Q3.       What do you mean by fundamental Unit?

Ans.     FUNDAMENTAL UNIT:

Units used to express fundamental quantities are called Fundamental Units.

OR

The unit of quantity of matter, Length and time are called Fundamental units. Because

these are very essential for any experiment. We cannot define any body, event or any

experiment without these fundamental units.

Q4.       What do you mean by derived units?

Ans.     DERIVED UNITS:

The units, which are derived from fundamental units, are called Derived Units.

Example:

Unit of Area is derived from unit of distance or length. Similarly the division of distance

and time derives the unit of velocity, unit of volume is also derived from distance or

length.

Q5.       What is meant by System of units?

Ans.     SYSTEM OF UNITS:

The fundamental units and derived fundamental units are called System Units.

Q6.       How many systems of units in World?

Ans. There are four system of unit in the world, which are as follows:

1.         M.K.S System               (Meter – Kilogram – Second)

2.         C.G.S System               (Centimetre – Gram – Second)

3.         F.P.S. or BE System     (Foot – Pound – Second) or British Engineering System

4.         S.I.System                    (System International)

Q7.       Give the unit of mass, distance and time in different system of Units.

Ans.

Name of system Unit of Length Or Distance Unit of Mass Unit of Time
M.K.S SystemC.G.S.SystemF.P.S or BE SystemS.I System Meter (m)Centimetre (cm)Foot  (ft)Meter (m) Kilogram (Kg)Gram (g)SlugKilogram (kg) SecondSecondSecondSecond

Q8.       What is meant by System of International? Also write the basic units of S.I.

System.

Ans.     SYSTEM OF INTERNATIONAL (S.I. System):

For two centuries a large number of conversion factors had to be memorized to

convert basic units into practical units and vice versa. This difficulty was removed in

MKSA (meter-kilogram-second-ampere) system, in which ampere was adopted as a

fundamental electrical unit. This MKSA system had been internationally adopted and

called S.I. System.

Fundamental Unit of S.I. system

Units of length  or  distance                           meter (m)Unit  of Mass                                                  Kilogram (kg)Unit of time                                                     Second (Sec)Unit of Current                                              Ampere (Amp)

Q9.       What is difference between M.K.S. and S.I. System?

S.No. M.K.S. System S.I. System
1.2.3. It has three fundamental units.It stand for the unit of mass, distanceand time.The unit of mass, distance andtime is Kg, and Sec respectively. It has four fundamental units.It stands for the units of mass,Distancetime & current.The unit of mass, distance time andcurrent are Kg, Meter, Sec and Amprespectively.

Ans.

Q10.     Write short note on following.

i.        Meter         ii.      Kilograms        iii.        Second                       iv.         Ampere

Ans.     METRE:

It is the unit of length in 1983, the general conference in S.I. system of weight and

measures defined “one meter length as the length of the path traveled by light in a

vacuum during a time interval of 1/29979.2458 of a second.

KILOGRAM:

It is the unit of mass in S.I. System. The standard kilogram is the mass of certain

cylindrical piece of platinum iridium alloy kept at Sevres France. The cylinder is 3.9 cm

in diameter and 3.9cm in length.

SECOND:

It is the unit of time in all system. It is defined as the duration of 9192631778 cycles of

the radiation corresponding to the transition between two levels of the ground state of

the Caesium atom. It is denoted by “sec”.

AMPERE:

It is the unit of current in S.I.system. Its symbol is “A”. It is defined as the current which

is flowing in two straight parallel wires of infinite length placed one meter apart in a

vacuum, will produce on each of the wire with a force 2×107 Newton per meter length.

Q11.     Write the important fundamental and derived units of S.I.system?

Ans.     DERIVED UNITS:

AngleDensitySpeedForcePressureEnergy-Work-HeatPowerChargeElectric PotentialResistance

Conductance

Capacitance

Inductance

Magnetic Flux

Magnetic Field

RadiansKilogram per cubic metreMetre per secondNewtonPascalJouleWattsVoltsCoulombOhm

Seimens

Farad

Henry

Webre

Teals

Kg/m3m/secondHPascalJouleWattvoltscoulombohm

seimens

farad

henry

webre

teals

IMPORTANT UNITS

Physical quantities Units
1.2.3. TemperatureLight IntensityAmount of matter Kelvin (K)Candila (Cd)Mole (n)

Q12.     Give the rule of Notation in SI. System.

Ans. The following are the important rule for notations

i.          Full stop should not use in any unit e.g., J.S is wrong, JS is correct. Cm is wrong

but cm is correct.

ii.          Similarly cms is wrong, whereas cm is correct.

iii.         We often write Kg/m3 m/s, but correct is Kgm3, ms1,

Q13.     Write short note of following:

i.          Physical Balance         ii.         Vernier Calliper            iii.        Stop Watch

iv.        Micrometre Screw Gauge                     v.         Measuring Cylinder

Ans.     PHYSICAL BALANCE:

Construction:

i.          It is the first hand of lever in which length of both arms is equal.

ii.          The beam between two arms is made-up

of Aluminium The beam A is provided with

two identical pans P & P ’  suspended by knife

edges K and K ‘.

iii.         When we rotate the screw B, the knife lifts

the beam up from the support T and R is a

pillar. The pans are lifted up from the base

Working:

i.          The beam is made horizontal with the help

of screw F and F ‘.

ii.          The body whose mass is to be determined is

put on the left pan and known mass I put on

the right pan.

iii.         Maintaining the pointer at zero position,

the mass is determined.

iv.         It should be noted that the physical balance measures mass, certainly not the

weight and its is quite independent of the value of “g”.

VERNIER CALLIPER:

Construction:

i.          A vernier caliper is consists of a rectangular steel bar whose one side is

graduated in  cms.

ii.          It consists of two scales, one is called Main scale and other is called Vernier

Scale.

iii.         The vernier scale freely moves on the main scale.

iv.         Vernier scale is 9mm long and is divided into 10 equal parts.

v.         The difference between main scale and vernier scale is 0.1mm or 0.01cm, which

called Vernier constant or “Lease Count”.

vi.         Least count is used to find the fractional part.

vii.        With help of this device we can accurately make measurement upto one tenth

(1/10) of a millimeter or one hundredth (1/100) of a centimeter.

Use:

i.          The vernier slides move on main scale until its jaw just touch the ends of the

object being measured.

ii.          Suppose a reading of 5.34cm is shown in figure.

iii.         This is the reading of main scale.

iv.         When a nearest perpendicular line of a vernier scale is coincides with a main

scale marks. The reading obtained in division is called Vernier scale reading.

Suppose it is 4 division as shown in the above figure.

MICROMETER SCREW GUAGE:

Construction:

i.          It has two scales, one is called main scale and other is called Circular scale.

ii.          It is used to measure the diameter and thickness of small objects.

iii.         Spindle is an important part in Screw guage as shown in figure.

iv.         Spindle is fitted with a graduated thimble.

v.         To protect the screwed portion it kept into enclosed cylinder.

vi.         Spindle moves through 0.5mm or 0.05cm for each complete rotation. This

distance is called pitch of the screw gauge.

Use:

i.          The circular scale moves on main scale, which is in millimeter.

ii.          When the object is being measured, we rotate circular scale clockwise till spindle

just touches the object. Now we may take reading.

STOP WATCH:

Construction:

i.          We use a stopwatch for measurement of time,

in our laboratories.

ii.          It has two hands M and S.

iii.         ‘M’ is for minutes and ‘S’ is for seconds.

iv.         Normally both M and S coincide with position

o2f zero.

v.         The button ‘B’ is pressed and released for

recording the time interval between the start

and stop of the event.

vi.         By pressing and releasing button ‘B’ the needle,

of stopwatch returned at zero and ready for next

fresh reading.

MEASURING CYLINDER:

Construction:

i.          It is made-up of glass.

ii.          A scale in cubic centimeter or millimeter printed on it.

iii.         It is used to find volume of liquids.

iv.         When we pour liquid into the cylinder, the level of liquid in the cylinder is noted.

v.         We should keep the eye in level with the bottom of the meniscus of the liquid in

order to read the volume correctly.

vi.         The liquid surface and the cylinder must be on a horizontal table.

Q14.     Define the following:

i.          Directly Proportional

ii.         Inversely Proportional

iii.        Proportional Constant

Ans.     DIRECTLY PROPORTIONAL

Such relation between two physical quantities in which one is increased other is also

increased, and similarly when one is decreased, the other is decreased, is called Directly

Proportional. The Graph of such relation is always in straight line. Graph of Directly

Proportional.

Example: V  a T

This equation shows the relation of directly proportional between Volume and

Absolute Temperature.

INVERSLY PROPORTIONAL:

If one physical quantity is increasing, then the other is decreasing , and if one were

decreasing, the other would be increasing then this relation is termed INVERSLY

PROPORTIONAL relation.

Example:

If volume and pressure are two physical quantities. Then the relation between them is

V  a 1/P

Graph of Inversely Proportional:

The graph of inversely proportional relation between two physical quantities is always

forms a curve shape.

PROPORTIONAL CONSTANT:

To change the symbol of inversely or directly proportional between two physical

quantities. We must use a symbol (K), which is called Proportional Constant.

Example:

V a T           V  =   KT

Where  a is a symbol of directly proportional

in this case K is proportional constant.

Q15.     What is a Graph?

Ans. It the way of showing the nature of relation between two physical quantities either it is

straight or in curve path.

Q16:     How is Graph Construct?

Ans.     METHOD OF CONSTRUCTING GRAPH:

i.          It is always construct on paper on which

there are many straight horizontal and

vertical lines.

ii.          First, we draw two lines, which are

perpendicular to each other as shown in

figure.

iii.         The vertical line is called Y-axis and the

horizontal line is called X-axis.

iv.         Where both x and y-axis intersect each

other is called origin.

v.         The value of Y-axis is always positive from

origin to upward direction and negative

from origin to downward.

vi.         The value x-axis is always negative from origin

to left side and positive from origin to right.

vii.        All positive and negative value constructed on graph in small points. Then these

points are joined with each other and get the graph.

Q17.     Write the advantages of Graph.

Ans.     ADVANTAGES OF GRAPH:

i.          It is denoted the reactor between two physical quantities.

ii.          It also shows the change of relation between two physical quantities.

iii.         A doctor diagnosis his patient, by a graph which is drawn between the patient ‘s

condition and medicines to be recommended.

iv.         Businessmen can also the state of his business by drawing a graph between                                 investment made and profit earned.

Q18.     What is meant by Error?

Ans.     ERROR:

The difference between the measured and the actual value of any quantity is called

Error.

Q19.     How many types of Errors are. Define each.

Ans. There are three types of errors, which are as follows:

i.          Personal Error.

ii.          Systematic Error.

iii.         Random Error.

i           PERSONAL ERROR:

This error occurs when the instruments are used improperly.

ii          SYSTEMATIC ERROR:

If difference between actual and experimental reading is due to the fault of the

measuring instrument then it is called Systematic Error.

iii.        RANDOM ERROR:

If difference between actual and experimental reading is due to change in physical

state then it is called Random Error.

Q20.     What is meant by Correction?

Ans.     CORRECTION:

If difference between actual and experiment reading is more and more minimized,

then it is called Correctness. This can be done only when we use the instrument

properly and remove their fault, stop the change of physical state.


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